Nowadays Bavaria consists of 5 provinces (Regierungsbezirke): Oberbayern, Niederbayern, Oberpfalz, Schwaben und Franken. Only the first three are considered as Old-Bavaria and only there „real“ Bavarian is spoken. Fränkisch (=Frankonian) and Schwäbisch is related to Bavarian, but is considered as seperate dialects.
The two most famous places of Bavaria lie both in Oberbayern: München (Munich, the capital) and Schloss Neuschwanstein (the fairytail castle). But there are a lot of other places well worth visiting! Smaller cities like Regensburg, Garmisch etc. are lovely and there are a lot more gigantic castles, old ruins and magnificant churches, even in the countryside. Not to forget the Bavarian cuisine, which is the far most distinctive in Germany with hearty dishes like Schweinshaxn, Sauerbraten, Semmelknödel etc.